HOW MANY PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES DO HUMANS HAVE AND THEIR FUNCTION?healevomohtashim107 October 7, 2018 0 COMMENTS
HOW MANY PAIRS OF CHROMOSOMES DO HUMANS HAVE AND THEIR FUNCTION ?The human boy is made up of trillions of building units called the cell. These cells have basic components such as a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. The cytoplasm further contains other important organelles which play a vital role in the functioning of the cell. Here the cell nucleus is like the most central and important part of the cell. A nucleus is like a headquarters and this where the chromosomes lie. In this tiny cell, we must know that how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have? The number of chromosomes in humans cells is 23 pairs. Which makes it 46 individual chromosomes in a human cell. This must be kept in mind that the number of chromosomes is very crucial in the development of a normal human being. When a baby is conceived, he or she gets half of the chromosomes from mother and from the father.
A single chromosome basically packs the long sequence of DNA into proper coils. So a chromosomes id basically a coiled and beat form of long strands of DNA sequence. So we can say that a chromosome is the entire packaging of the genetic sequence that forms you.
STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME
When we observe the structure of a chromosome, we see that it is like two thick rods, which are joined through the middle by a constriction. This point of constriction and meeting of two chromosomes from the mid is called a centromere. This structure is not always present in the nucleus. In normal days, the DNA stays in nucleus like a tangled woolly ball in the nucleus. But when it is time for the cell to divide through mitosis only then it condenses so that division and distribution of cell and DNA can take place safely and accurately.
When we untangle a strand of DNA molecule we observe that it is a ladder-like helix structure which contains the basic and crucial information of how a human is structured. It is like the blueprint of a human. It is made up of the ribose sugar, nucleotide, and a phosphate group. There are four types of nucleotides ( adenine, guanine, cytosine, and tyrosine). Nucleotides are very and extremely important information of proteins and ultimately your organs and tissues.
If the structure of chromosome undergoes any aberration or mutation, it can cause permanent and sometimes very lethal health problems. So the number of chromosomes and its proper structure is very important to form a normal human being.
ROLE OF CHROMOSOMES
Chromosomes play a vital role in making us all different and unique. Even among siblings, we see some differences. This is due to genetic mutations that contribute to our uniqueness. This can occur through hereditary mutation which passes from generation to generation such as red-heads. Or it can occur through an acquired mutation that occurs suddenly at some point in life due to biological or environmental reasons such as exposure to UV rays.
At the time of meiosis, some DNA may not get divided properly information of the sex cells. Which can lead to errors in chromosome formation and lead to abnormalities such as Down’s syndrome, Jacob’s syndrome and etc. Very few survive but lead a very dependent and hard life while many get aborted at early stages of pregnancy.
Know more about What Is The Function Of Ribosome And Its Structure.
So we now know that how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have and that is 23 pairs. The arrangement and exact 23 pairs are important information and functionality of a normal human being.
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